Night soil: Kenyans feeding on Sukuma wiki grown in raw sewage

While some city residents have become farmers either by design or default depending on the residential area one resides in, cheap is proving to be life threatening as farmers are now using raw sewage for farming. This means much of the vegetables especially sukuma wiki (kales) on sale in Nairobi are highly contaminated and pose a serious health risk to consumers.

A visit to the sewage collection point in Njiru, Nairobi by Linda Shiundu of TUKO.co.ke revealed the effluence deposited there is always tapped and used for farming by farmers living. The farmers who wished to remain anonymous said instead of waiting for the rains, they would rather take advantage of the 75,000 liters of untreated sewage disposed daily to water their crops. They do so by digging trenches from the deposit site channeling the semi solid human waste into their farms which they use to water the crops and as manure. They mainly grow vegetables like sukuma wiki, spinach and other crops like bananas. Sewage deposited at the sewage collection point around Njiru area is always trapped by farmers living around the collection center and use for planting. The vegetables later on find their way into the market and in to the plates and stomachs of many unsuspecting residents. The vegetables later on find their way into the market.

Despite the health risks posed by the exposed raw sewage including, diarrhea, abdominal pain, vomiting and even death, open food kiosks are also run next to the disposal site. The kiosks are normally flooded with drivers who bring in the hundreds of lorries daily to deposit the sewage.

Patterns of crypto in Australia

Cryptosporidium is a protozoan parasite that causes the diarrheal disease, cryptosporidiosis. Although many species have been identified, the majority of human disease worldwide is caused by two species; Cryptosporidium parvum and Cryptosporidium hominis. 

In Australia, data from the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System (NNDSS) show that cryptosporidiosis outbreaks occur every few years. To better understand the transmission, trends and nature of cryptosporidiosis outbreaks in Western Australia, epidemiological and genomic data from three cryptosporidiosis outbreaks in 2003, 2007 and 2011 were reviewed.

The 2007 outbreak was the largest (n = 607) compared with the outbreaks in 2003 (n = 404) and 2011 (n = 355). All three outbreaks appeared to have occurred predominantly in the urban metropolitan area (Perth), which reported the highest number of case notifications; increases in case notifications were also observed in rural and remote areas. Children aged 0–4 years and non-Aboriginal people comprised the majority of notifications in all outbreaks. However, in the 2003 and 2007 outbreaks, a higher proportion of cases from Aboriginal people was observed in the remote areas. Molecular data were only available for the 2007 (n = 126) and 2011 (n = 42) outbreaks, with C. hominis the main species identified in both outbreaks. Subtyping at the glycoprotein 60 (gp60) locus identified subtype IbA10G2 in 46.3% and 89.5% of C. hominis isolates typed, respectively, in the 2007 and 2011 outbreaks, with the IdA15G1 subtype was identified in 33.3% of C. hominis isolates typed in the 2007 outbreak. The clustering of cases with the IdA15G1 subtype in the remote areas suggests the occurrence of a concurrent outbreak in remote areas during the 2007 outbreak, which primarily affected Aboriginal people.

Both the C. hominis IbA10G2 and IdA15G1 subtypes have been implicated in cryptosporidiosis outbreaks worldwide; its occurrence indicates that the mode of transmission in both the 2007 and 2011 outbreaks was anthroponotic. To better understand the epidemiology, sources and transmission of cryptosporidiosis in Australia, genotyping data should routinely be incorporated into national surveillance programmes.

Comparison of three cryptosporidiosis outbreaks in Western Australia: 2003, 2007 and 2011

05 July 2018

Epidemiology & Infection

S. Y. Ng-Hublin(a1)B. Combs(a2)S. Reid (a3) and U. Ryan (a1) 

https://doi.org/10.1017/S0950268818001607

https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/epidemiology-and-infection/article/comparison-of-three-cryptosporidiosis-outbreaks-in-western-australia-2003-2007-and-2011/4B7491E4CB498D3E20E0E4B1B275BEF6

‘I just bear up to my bewilderness’ Trichinella in undercooked bear meat, Japan, 2016

An outbreak of trichinellosis occurred in Japan in December 2016. All case-patients had eaten undercooked bear meat, from which Trichinella larvae were subsequently isolated. DNA sequencing analysis of the mitochondrial genes cytochrome c-oxidase subunit 1 and internal transcribed spacer 2 confirmed that Trichinella T9 had caused the outbreak.

Outbreak of Trichinella T9 infections associated with consumption of bear meat, Japan 

Emerging Infectious Diseases vol. 24 no. 8

Katsushige Tada, Hiromichi Suzuki, Yosuke Sato, Yasuyuki Morishima, Isao Nagano, Haruhiko Ishioka, and Harumi Gomi 

https://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/24/8/17-2117_article

How produce gets contaminated in the field: A review

Foodborne illness resulting from the consumption of contaminated fresh produce is a common phenomenon and has severe effects on human health together with severe economic and social impacts.

The implications of foodborne diseases associated with fresh produce have urged research into the numerous ways and mechanisms through which pathogens may gain access to produce, thereby compromising microbiological safety.

This review provides a background on the various sources and pathways through which pathogenic bacteria contaminate fresh produce; the survival and proliferation of pathogens on fresh produce while growing and potential methods to reduce microbial contamination before harvest.

Some of the established bacterial contamination sources include contaminated manure, irrigation water, soil, livestock/ wildlife, and numerous factors influence the incidence, fate, transport, survival and proliferation of pathogens in the wide variety of sources where they are found. Once pathogenic bacteria have been introduced into the growing environment, they can colonize and persist on fresh produce using a variety of mechanisms.

Overall, microbiological hazards are significant; therefore, ways to reduce sources of contamination and a deeper understanding of pathogen survival and growth on fresh produce in the field are required to reduce risk to human health and the associated economic consequences.

 

Sources and contamination routes of microbial pathogens to fresh produce during field cultivation: A review

Food Microbiology, vol. 73, pg. 177-208

Oluwadara Alegbeleye, Ian Singleton and Anderson Sant’Ana

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fm.2018.01.003

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0740002017310158?via%3Dihub

Use a thermometer: Raw frozen chicken burgers sicken 68 in Canada

Craig Takeuchi of Straight writes several more cases of Salmonella have been reported in an outbreak across Canada linked to a recalled frozen raw chicken product.

The Pubic Health Agency of Canada, the Canadian Food Inspection Agency, Health Canada, and provincial and territorial health partners have been investigating and issued a public notice about the Salmonella Enteritidis outbreak on June 2.   

The Canadian Food Inspection Agency had issued a food recall warning on June 2 for a frozen raw breaded chicken product: No Name brand chicken burgers (1 kilogram) from Loblaw Companies Limited with a best before date of February 6, 2019 (with UPC code 0 60383 16636 6). The product was distributed nationally.

Several affected individuals in the outbreak had reported consuming the product.

As of June 18, there were nine additional cases of illness to increase the total number of infections to 68 individuals. Eight of those cases are in B.C., and the largest number is in Quebec, where there are 23 cases.

So far, 15 people have been hospitalized but no deaths have been reported.

Canadians are advised not to consume the product and to either dispose of it or return it to the store it was purchased from while restaurants are advised not to serve it. Those who do not have the original packaging and are uncertain if it is included in the food recall are advised to throw it out to be safe.

Sprouts still suck: Seven in hospital, 14 more sick with Salmonella from alfalfa sprouts in South Australia

Brad Crouch of The Advertiser writes seven people are in hospital and another 14 sick from eating alfalfa sprouts, triggering a SA Health warning to the public not to eat alfalfa sprout products produced by Adelaide business SA Sprouts.

SA Health Chief Medical Officer and Chief Public Health Officer, Professor Paddy Phillips, said there had been 21 confirmed cases of Salmonella havana linked to the sprouts.

“We are advising anyone who has purchased the recalled SA Sprouts alfalfa sprouts products to return them to the place of purchase for a refund, or throw them away,” Prof Phillips said.

“We also want to alert cafes and restaurants to check their suppliers and not serve any SA Sprouts alfalfa sprout products until further notice.

“In cases of salmonella a common food source is not often identified, however a joint investigation between SA Health, local government and Primary Industries and Regions SA (PIRSA) has linked these cases to SA Sprouts alfalfa sprouts.

“We are working closely with the producer and suppliers while we continue to investigate.”

Raw is risky: Oysters suspected as jury awards couple $6.7 million in Tampa food poisoning

Jonathan Capriel of Tampa Bay reports a jury awarded a couple $6.7 million after they got sick from eating seafood at a Tampa restaurant. The verdict came in May, years after the husband’s illness led to a rare disorder that causes paralysis and nerve damage.

Angel Martinez and his wife Maria Elena Martinez had eaten 10 times earlier at Lobster Haven, 12807 W Hillsborough Ave., when they sat down Dec. 21, 2013, for their usual — two three-pound lobsters and a dozen Bluepoint oysters, according to court records.

The couple declined to comment for this story, as did Lobster Haven owner Daniel Hall.

Attorneys for the couple said the illness was likely caused by the oysters.

“You take a risk when eating raw oysters,” said Brandon Cathey, who represented the Martinezes. “It might get you sick, but you don’t expect it to cause lifelong nerve damage.”

A few hours after the meal, the couple experienced vomiting and diarrhea, according to court records.

Maria Elena Martinez recovered in a few days, but three weeks later, her husband had to be taken by ambulance to Pasco Regional Medical Center after he collapsed on the floor at his home, according to court records.

Doctors transferred him to Tampa General Hospital, where he spent seven days in the intensive care unit, according to court records. He was paralyzed from the waist down for several months and had to learn how to walk again, according to court records.

Martinez’s foodborne illness developed into Guillain-Barre Syndrome, a rare disorder that causes the immune system to attack one’s own body.

He has recovered from the most severe symptoms of the illness but will likely feel long term effects, said his attorney Brent Steinberg.

Lobster Haven admitted it served the couple seafood that poisoned them but denied that it caused Guillain-Barre Syndrome, blaming instead a lamb that Mr. Martinez slaughtered and ate days later.

Lobster Haven’s insurance company offered to settle the case for $20,000 in 2016, Cathey said, but by then Martinez’s medical bills had reached more than $325,000, according to court records.

The restaurant had liability insurance up to $1 million and the Martinez’ likely would have settled for that amount, Cathey said.

“Now this restaurant may go out of business,” he said, “because of the way his insurance company handled this.”

Raw is risky: Squid sperm buries into woman’s tongue

A 63-year-old woman got a nasty shock when tucking into a seafood dinner.

According to Sophie Roberts of the Daily Star, the South Korean patient sought medical attention after she consumed raw squid.

Doctors discovered that her mouth had been inseminated by the creature’s sperm, which had lodged into her tongue and gums.

A Journal of Parasitology report noted that the woman immediately knew something was wrong with the dish.

Even though she spat out the mouthful, she was still affected by the uncooked seafood.

It explained: “As soon as she put a piece into her mouth, she felt like many ‘bugs’ were biting her oral mucosa.

“She experienced severe sharp pain and spat out the entire portion without swallowing.

“Despite that, she could feel many small squirming white bug-like organisms penetrating her.”

The squid sperm acted as it would during reproduction, leading to it implanting itself into the patient’s mouth.

After seeking medical attention, the woman was believed to make a full recovery.

While this case may seem very out of the ordinary, it isn’t the first time it has happened.

In 2011, a 21-year-old woman fell victim to a similar problem after consuming the sexual organs of a raw squid.

Pathology International reported that she also suffered issues with her gums and tongue.

The study warned: “Consumption of a squid with sperm bags and an active ejaculatory apparatus can lead to unintended ejection of the sperm bag and injury to the oral mucosa.”

This whole process is actually autonomous, meaning that the squid’s sex organ is prone to firing off without any conscious decision by the squid, according to a study in the journal Zoomorphology.

Why quarterbacks should stick to football: New Oregon QB commit Cale Millen celebrates by chugging raw eggs with head coach Mario Cristobal

There’s nothing worse than athletes trying to speak.

Bull Durham captured it (below).

This ain’t Rocky, this is Salmonella.

Apparently, it was representative of Cale Millen’s dedication to the University of Oregon. The newest Ducks commit, a Mount Si (Wash.) three-star junior, announced his college decision on Sunday and celebrated by chugging a glass of three raw eggs with his future head coach, Mario Cristobal, as captured by The Oregonian Oregon beat writer Andrew Nemec.

If that sounds unhealthy, well, it is. Sure, raw eggs pack plenty of protein, but they also pack a risk of salmonella. Not a huge risk of salmonella, mind you (there’s actually a greater risk of salmonella on contaminated egg shells than eggs), but the risk is there.

Raw is risky: Salmonella growth on sprouts and microgreens

Microgreens, like sprouts, are relatively fast-growing products and are generally consumed raw. Moreover, as observed for sprouts, microbial contamination from preharvest sources may also be present in the production of microgreens.

In this study, two Salmonella enterica serovars (Hartford and Cubana), applied at multiple inoculation levels, were evaluated for survival and growth on alfalfa sprouts and Swiss chard microgreens by using the most-probable-number (MPN) method. Various abiotic factors were also examined for their effects on Salmonella survival and growth on sprouts and microgreens. Community-level physiological profiles (CLPPs) of sprout/microgreen rhizospheres with different levels of S. enterica inoculation at different growth stages were characterized by use of Biolog EcoPlates. In the seed contamination group, the ability of S. enterica to grow on sprouting alfalfa seeds was affected by both seed storage time and inoculation level but not by serovar. However, the growth of S. enterica on Swiss chard microgreens was affected by serovar and inoculation level. Seed storage time had little effect on the average level of Salmonella populations in microgreens. In the irrigation water contamination group, the growth of Salmonella on both alfalfa sprouts and microgreens was largely affected by inoculation level. Surprisingly, the growth medium was found to play an important role in Salmonella survival and growth on microgreens. CLPP analysis showed significant changes in the microbial community metabolic diversity during sprouting for alfalfa sprouts, but few temporal changes were seen with microgreens. The data suggest that the change in rhizosphere bacterial functional diversity was dependent on the host but independent of Salmonella contamination.

Sprouts and microgreens are considered “functional foods,” i.e., foods containing health-promoting or disease-preventing properties in addition to normal nutritional values. However, the microbial risk associated with microgreens has not been well studied. This study evaluated Salmonella survival and growth on microgreens compared to those on sprouts, as well as other abiotic factors that could affect Salmonella survival and growth on microgreens. This work provides baseline data for risk assessment of microbial contamination of sprouts and microgreens. Understanding the risks of Salmonella contamination and its effects on rhizosphere microbial communities enables a better understanding of host-pathogen dynamics in sprouts and microgreens. The data also contribute to innovative preventive control strategies for Salmonella contamination of sprouts and microgreens.

Plant-microbe and abiotic factors influencing salmonella survival and growth on alfalfa sprouts and Swiss chard microgreens

16 February 2018

Applied and Environmental Microbiology, vol 84 no 9

Elizabeth ReedaChristina M. Ferreiraa, Rebecca BellaEric W. Browna and Jie Zhenga

doi:10.1128/AEM.02814-17

http://aem.asm.org/content/84/9/e02814-17.abstract?etoc